LXC

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Revision as of 13:38, 18 September 2012 by 89.169.95.100 (talk) (Make normal general description)
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Prepare a Linux Container

Requirements

  • A console should be disabled (lxc.console = none)
  • udev should not run inside containers ($ mv /sbin/udevd{,.bcp})

Preparing a host environment

  • Mount cgroupfs
$ mount -t cgroup c /cgroup
  • Create a network bridge
# cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-br0 
DEVICE=br0
TYPE=Bridge
BOOTPROTO=dhcp
ONBOOT=yes
DELAY=5
NM_CONTROLLED=n
$ cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
DEVICE="eth0"
NM_CONTROLLED="no"
ONBOOT="yes"
BRIDGE=br0

Create and start a container

  • Download an OpenVZ template and extract it.
curl http://download.openvz.org/template/precreated/centos-6-x86_64.tar.gz | tar -xz -C test-lxc
  • Create config files
$ cat ~/test-lxc.conf 
lxc.console=none
lxc.utsname = test-lxc
lxc.network.type = veth
lxc.network.flags = up
lxc.network.link = br0
lxc.network.name = eth0
lxc.mount = /root/test-lxc/etc/fstab
lxc.rootfs = /root/test-lxc-root/
$ cat /root/test-lxc/etc/fstab
none /root/test-lxc-root/dev/pts devpts defaults 0 0
none /root/test-lxc-root/proc    proc   defaults 0 0
none /root/test-lxc-root/sys     sysfs  defaults 0 0
none /root/test-lxc-root/dev/shm tmpfs  defaults 0 0
  • Register the container
$ lxc-create -n test-lxc -f test-lxc.conf
  • Start the container
$ mount --bind test-lxc test-lxc-root/
$ lxc-start -n test-lxc

Checkpoint and restore an LXC Container

Preparations

You only need to install the crtools.

Dump and restore

Dumping and restoring an LXC contianer means -- dumping a subtree of processes starting from container init plus all kinds of namespaces. Restoring is symmetrical. The way LXC container works imposes some more requirements on crtools usage.

  • You need to use the --evasive-devices option to handle /dev/log users (there's a bug in LXC code)
  • In order to properly isolate container from unwanted networking communication during checkpoint/restore you should provide a script for locking/unlocking the container network (see below)
  • When restoring a container with veth device you may specify a name for the host-side veth device
  • In order to checkpoint and restore alive TCP connections you should use the --tcp-established option

Typically a container dump command will look like

crtools dump 
    --evasive-devices                # handle /dev/log usage bug
    --tcp-established                # allow for TCP connections dump
    -n net -n mnt -n ipc -n pid      # dump all the namespaces container uses
    --action-script "net-script.sh"  # use net-script.sh to lock/unlock networking
    -D dump/ -o dump.log             # set images dir to dump/ and put logs into dump.log file
    -t ${init-pid}                   # start dumping from task ${init-pid}. It should be container's init

and restore command like

crtools restore
   --evasive-devices
   --tcp-established
   -n net -n mnt -n ipc -n pid
   --action-script "net-script.sh"
   --veth-pair eth0=${veth-name}     # when restoring a veth link use ${veth-name} for host-side device end
   --root ${path}                    # path to container root. It should be a root of a (bind)mount
   -D data/ -o restore.log
   -t ${init-pid}

We also find it useful to use the --restore-detached option for restore to make contianer reparent to init rather than hanging on a crtools process launched from shell. Another useful option is the --pidfile one -- you will be able to find out the host-side pid of a container init after restore.

Example

We have an application test to test dump/restore of a Linux Container.

This test contains two scripts: run.sh and network-script.sh.

The script run.sh is a main script, which executes crtools two times for dumping and restoring CT. This scripts contains actual options for crtools.

The script network-script.sh is used to lock and unlock CT's network. During dump a state of CT should not be changed, so CR tools freezes processes and executes an external script to freeze network. On restore CR tools restores states of processes and resumes the CT, which includes resume of processes and network). An external script is used to unlock CT's network.